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你不知道的工程造价概预算常识详解,都在这里

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The meaning of the budget estimate

The budget estimate refers to the pre-calculation of the various manpower, material resources and funds required for the construction project before the start of construction. Its purpose is to effectively determine and control the investment of construction projects and the preparation of human, material and financial resources to ensure the smooth completion of the project.

As a technical term, the budget is actually two kinds of understanding. Broad understanding should refer to a complete working process of budgeting, and narrow understanding refers to the inevitable result of this process, namely the budgetary document.

Classification and role of budget estimates

According to the development stage of the construction activity, the budget can be divided into:

(1) Investment estimate

The investment estimate refers to a rough estimate of the total investment of the construction project in the preparation of the construction project proposal and feasibility study stage. It is a major reference economic indicator in the construction project decision.

(2) Design budget calculations

The design budget estimate refers to the rough calculation of the expenses incurred in the project at the preliminary design stage of the project based on the preliminary design documents and drawings, the estimated budget (or budgetary indicators) and their related cost quotas. It is an important basis for the state to determine and control the capital construction investment, prepare the capital construction plan, select the optimal design plan, and implement the quota design. It is also the calculation of engineering design fees, the preparation of bidding bases and bid quotations, and the determination of the general contract price of the project. mostly according.

When the project adopts a three-stage design, in the stage of expanding the preliminary design (also called technical design), as the content of the funeral is deepened, the budget estimate of the preliminary design should be revised, which is called the revised estimate.

(3) Construction drawing budget

xx施工图预算是指一般预算。这意味着在工程项目施工图完成后,在单元工程开始之前,根据施工图纸和设计规范,预算定额,预算基准价格和成本定额等进行更详细的成本计算。发生。它是确定单元项目和单个项目的项目成本的基础;它是确定招标项目投标基数和投标价格,签订项目合同价格的依据;是施工单位和施工单位分配项目付款和项目最终结算的依据;组织设计和成本核算的不可或缺的文件。本期将重点关注施工计划预算。

(4)建设预算

施工预算是指施工前施工单位编制的施工预算。建设单位编制施工作业计划,实施内部配额管理和团队核算是基础。

上述几个预算文件是在项目开始之前计算出来的。在项目建设和完工过程中,有必要分阶段准备项目结算和决算,以确定项目的实际建设成本。

编制预算估计数

预算根据不同阶段分为投资估算,设计预算,施工图预算和建设预算。每个阶段的内容和方法都非常不同。其中,施工计划预算和施工预算是最常见和最广泛的,编制是最复杂的。我了解了施工计划预算,我可以对其他阶段的预算有所作为。因此,本文主要介绍施工图预算,其他准备工作仅提供一般性介绍。

投资估算方法

(1)按设备成本百分比的估算方法

根据拟议项目的设备费,施工安装工程和其他费用,按照设备安装工程费用的百分比和已完成的类似工程或设施的其他费用确定,并按施工总和计算。项目和其他费用应为项目或设备投资。

(2)Lange系数法

根据设备费用,乘以适当的系数(Lange系数)来估算项目的建设成本。

(3)生产能力指数法

项目投资额根据已完工建设项目或生产设施的投资额和生产能力以及拟建项目或生产设施的生产能力估算。

(4)单位指数估计方法

投资估算指标有多种形式,如元/m2,元/m3,元/kVA等。根据这些指标,乘以所需的面积,数量,容量等,你可以找到相应的投资。土木工程和安装工程。

设计预算计算方法

(1)扩大单价方法

当初步设计达到一定深度且建筑结构相对清晰时,可采用扩展单价法。

(2)预算指标方法

当初步设计深度不够时,无法准确计算工程量。但是,当项目中使用的技术相对成熟并且可以获得类似的估算时,可以使用预算指标方法。

(3)类似的工程算法

当工程设计对象类似于已完工或正在建设的项目,结构特征基本相同,或者估计的配额和估算的预算未完成时,可以使用类似的工程概率算法。

(4)单位估价方法

与编制预算类似,使用预算配额和相应的收费标准编制,其中的步骤是根据预算编制的。

施工图预算编制

(1)制备方法

制定一般施工图预算有两种主要方法。

1)单位估价方法

单位评估方法是指根据项目数量部分编制预算基础价格,计算固定直接费用,然后根据成本定额计算其他费用的方法。这种方法通常用于土建工程和安装项目。

2)物理成本法

实物成本法是指不直接应用预算基准价格,而是根据实际建筑劳动力,材料和机械转移消耗,乘以当地劳动力工资标准,材料预算价格和机械台价,然后计算其他项目。聚合。如何准备费用。这种方法常用于二次装饰工程。

(2)准备基础

件和基础。可以成功地准备施工图预算。一般而言,施工图预算基于:

1个批准的施工图纸,标准图集和施工计划;

3当前预算配额或预算基准价格(或单位估价表);

3当地劳动工资标准,材料预算价格和建筑机械办公桌价格;

4各种收费标准(又称综合收费标准);

5传播文件;

6本预算书,软件和处方表(表格不同,教学应根据当地情况量身定制)。

由于施工图已经批准,这意味着项目获得批准,这意味着项目是真实的,因此顶部的准备有一个目标和实际意义。

(3)准备步骤

长期以来,中国的预算编制采用了单位估值方法,因为它很简单。只要存在现有预算配额(预算基准价格或单位估价表)和成本配额,必要的材料市场价格就不需要更多额外信息。预算很容易准备,因此这种方法仍然是中国大多数省市最常用的方法。使用单位评估方法准备施工图预算的步骤主要是:

1熟悉施工图纸,了解现场;

2 According to the budget quota, the project is divided into construction projects;

3 Calculate the engineering quantity of each sub-project according to the rules (generally completed on the engineering quantity calculation table);

4 Apply the budget unit price and calculate the direct direct fee (can be done manually on the budget form or automatically generated by the budget software);

5 sets of quota consumption, for work material analysis, summary to form a bill of materials (can be done manually on the material analysis table or automatically generated by the budget software);

6 Calculate other direct fees, indirect fees, profits and taxes, etc. determine the unit project budget cost (can be done manually on the expense summary form or automatically generated by the budget software);

7 technical and economic indicators analysis;

8 Prepare the preparation instructions and bind them into a book.

(4) Composition of the budget book

The budget book usually refers to a budget document, which is the result of the completion of the budget work, that is, the budget staff's labor is turned into the numbers and information reflected on the paper medium. The general budget submitted for review and approval should have the following content:

1 cover;

2 preparation instructions;

3 Summary of various cost calculations;

4 project pre-determination chart;

5 bill of materials.

The calculation of the engineering quantity and the analysis of the material as the calculation draft are generally kept in the hands of the budget staff for future reference.

The above table format is shown in Figure 1.3, Table 1.2, and Table 1.3.

Bill of quantities

(1) The meaning of the bill of quantities

xxThe bill of quantities is the entire project and content specified in the contract, and is prepared according to the location and nature of the project, as well as their quantity, unit price, and price. It is used as a bid quotation and calculation after winning the bid. The basis of the project payment is an internationally accepted method of budgeting.

The bill of quantities list generally includes the following content:

1) Preface

Explain the status of the bill of quantities in the contract, the calculation rules of the quantity of the project, the content of the expenses within the unit price of the project, the principle of handling the unlisted and underreported items in the bill of quantities, and the attention to the use of the bill of quantities. Problems and so on.

2) Bill of quantities list

3) Day meter sheet

The daily work (ie, point-of-work) table gives the temporary or newly added engineering valuation methods and nominal quantities that may occur during the implementation of the project. Generally, there should be three tables of labor, materials and machinery. The unit price and the price in the table are filled in by the bidder.

4) Summary table

The total of each division, the sub-item quantity list, and the provisional amount (day-day worksheet and unforeseen expenses) are compiled into this table to form a summary table.

(2) Unit price content of the engineering quantity list

The unit price of the bill of quantities is determined by the bidder by analyzing the items listed in the list one by one.

The bidding unit is not required to provide the unit price analysis table in the general bidding documents.

The unit price of each item in the bill of quantities should generally include the following content:

1) Direct costs

1 labor fee;

2 material fee;

3 permanent equipment fee;

4 construction machinery fee.

2) Indirect costs

3) Profit and risk analysis

xx(3)工程量清单的作用

1是根据项目进度计量支付的依据;

2是处理项目单价和成本的基础;

3是处理索赔的直接参考。

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